Abortion in Russia is legal as an elective procedure up to the 12th week of pregnancyand in special circumstances at later stages. Russia had the highest number of abortions per woman of child-bearing age in the world according to UN data as of Abortion was illegal in the Russian Empire. The practice is not directly referenced in the Domostroithough child rearing is a common topic. During Tsar Alexis Romanov 's reign the punishment for abortion was death, only later removed by Peter the Great.
Abortion continued to be a serious crime until Through Options russian date results 20 and of the Russian Penal Code individuals "guilty of the crime could be deprived of civil rights and exiled or sentenced to hard labor. Not merely abortionists, babki were trained health care professionals—they served as nurses and midwives in especially rural areas where proper medical service was unavailable.
Petersburg was many times higher over the turn of the century, For instance, figures for sentences pronounced during the years before the First World War include: In the late Russian Empire, doctors and jurists began to advocate for relaxed abortion laws and increased contraception. The motivation was to make abortions less dangerous.
Rather than among the political scene as in France, for exampleproponents came from medical fields. The Soviet government was the first government in Europe to legalize abortion.
Restrictions were placed on the criteria for abortions and by it was only permitted where pregnancy risked the life of the woman or the unborn child. In particular, the Soviet government hoped to provide access to abortion in a safe environment performed by a trained doctor instead of babki.
The Soviet Union Options russian date results 20 the first country to have abortion available, on request, often for no cost. The main arguments used in opposition to legalizing abortion were that it would have a harmful effect on population growth or on the grounds that it was too medically harmful to the woman.
By the mids, hospitals were so severely congested by abortion procedures that special clinics had to be opened to free up beds.
The enormous rate of abortions being performed also caused many doctors to become concerned and restrictions started being passed to limit abortion after the third month of pregnancy and to ensure that priority was given only to women deemed too poor, single, or who already had several children. Only six months between a first abortion and a second abortion was permitted.
This had first started with the legalization of abortion in and a fair number of babki were caught and punished as legal abortion gave them no excuse to continue operating. During the collectivization drives in the early s, this was temporarily put on the back burner, but in new, stricter laws were passed on performing illegal abortions, including a circular of the RSFSR Procuracy and extensive stories on them in the major newspapers.
The circular requested that regional prosecutors step up efforts to combat unsanctioned abortion, citing a letter submitted to the Procuracy by an anonymous private citizen decrying the harm done to women by babki in one rural district.
A month later, Izvestiia ran a piece condemning "the plight of young women who ended up at the Options russian date results 20 doorstep after being unable to find employment.
The law that outlawed abortion did not only do just that, but rather contained several different decrees. This decree provoked widespread resentment and opposition, with urban women arguing that it was often impossible to have a child when they were trying to further their careers as the Soviet state actively promoted female education and work placement and because of inadequate housing and supplies needed to care for children.
The anti-abortion laws in practice were only marginally more enforceable than in tsarist times and babki continued to ply their trade, knowing that there was little risk of being caught. Although there were numerous cases of women checking into hospitals after undergoing botched abortions, it was usually impossible to tell if they had had a miscarriage, a self-performed one, or one performed by a babka. The unwritten code of female solidarity also held strong and Options russian date results 20 seldom ratted out babki to the authorities.
In practice, the abortion rate was affected little by the decrees, although it was observed that the rate of infant mortality rose between and due to apparently women injuring themselves in illegal abortions that then prevented them from producing healthy children.