Sperm donation is the provision or "donation" by a man known as a sperm donor of his sperm known as donor spermprincipally for it to be used in the artificial insemination of a woman or women who are not his sexual partners for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy. Sperm may Hard seed in sperm donated privately and directly to the intended recipient, or through a sperm bank or fertility clinic.
Sperm donation enables a man to father a child for third-party women, and is therefore, categorized as a form of third party reproduction. Pregnancies are usually achieved by using donor sperm in assisted reproductive technology ART techniques which include artificial insemination either by intracervical insemination ICI or intrauterine insemination IUI in a clinic, or intravaginal insemination at home.
Less commonly, donor sperm may be used in in vitro fertilization IVF. The primary recipients of donor sperm are single women, lesbian couples and heterosexual couples suffering from male infertility. Donor sperm and 'fertility treatments' using donor sperm may be obtained at a sperm bank or fertility clinic. Sperm banks or clinics may be subject to state or professional regulations, including restrictions on donor anonymity and the number of offspring that may be produced, and Hard seed in sperm may be other legal protections of the rights and responsibilities of Hard seed in sperm recipient and donor.
Some sperm banks, either by choice or regulation, limit the amount of information available to potential recipients; a desire to obtain more information on donors is one reason why recipients may choose to use a known donor or private donation i. A sperm donor is generally not intended to be the legal or de jure father of a child produced from his sperm.
The law may however, make implications in relation to legal fatherhood or the absence of a father. The law may also govern the fertility process through sperm donation in a fertility clinic. It may make provision as to whether a sperm donor may be anonymous or not, and it might give an adult donor conceived Hard seed in sperm the right to trace his or her biological father.
Where sperm is donated by natural inseminationi. In general, laws are more likely to disregard the sperm donor's biological link to the child, so that he will neither have child Hard seed in sperm obligations nor rights to the child.
In the absence of specific legal protection, courts may order a sperm donor to pay child support or recognize his parental rights, and will invariably do so where the insemination is carried out by natural, as opposed to artificial means. Laws in many jurisdictions limit the number of offspring that a sperm donor can give rise to, and who may be a recipient of donor sperm. The purpose of sperm donation is to provide pregnancies for women whose male partner is infertile or, more commonly, for Hard seed in sperm who do not have a male partner.
Direct sexual contact between the parties is avoided since the donor's sperm is placed in the woman's body by artificial means but see Natural Insemination.
Sperm donation preserves the sexual integrity of a recipient, but the woman is nevertheless able to benefit from the reproductive capacity of a man to provide her with a pregnancy. Donor sperm is prepared for use in artificial insemination in intrauterine insemination IUI or intra-cervical insemination ICI.
Less commonly, donor sperm is Hard seed in sperm for use in other assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI. Donor sperm may also be used in surrogacy arrangements either by artificially inseminating the surrogate known as traditional surrogacy or by implanting in a surrogate embryos which have been created by using donor sperm together with eggs from a donor or from the 'commissioning female' known as gestational surrogacy .
Spare embryos from this process may be donated to other women or surrogates. Donor sperm may also be used for producing embryos with donor eggs which are then donated to a female who is Hard seed in sperm genetically related to the child she produces.
In medical terms, a pregnancy achieved using donor sperm is no different from a pregnancy achieved through sexual intercourse, and genetically a child Hard seed in sperm by sperm donation will be the child of the sperm donor and the woman whose egg was fertilized by his sperm although not necessarily the birth mother. Procedures of any kind, e. A sperm donor may donate sperm privately or through a sperm banksperm agency, or other brokerage arrangement. Donations from private donors are most commonly carried out using artificial insemination.
Generally, a male who provides sperm as a sperm donor gives up all legal and other rights over the biological children produced from his sperm.
Donors may or may not be paid, according to local laws and agreed arrangements. Even in unpaid arrangements, expenses are often reimbursed.
Depending on local law and on private arrangements, men may donate anonymously or agree to provide identifying information to their offspring in the future.
Non-anonymous donors are also called Hard seed in sperm donors", "open donors" or "identity disclosure donors". A review of surveys among donors came to the results that the media and advertising are most efficient in attracting donors, and that the internet is becoming increasingly important in this purpose. A sperm donor will usually donate sperm to a sperm bank under a contract, which typically specifies the period during which the donor will be required to produce sperm, which generally ranges from six to 24 months depending on the number of pregnancies which the sperm bank intends to produce from the donor.
If a sperm bank has access to world markets e.
The contract may also specify the place and hours for donation, a requirement to notify the sperm bank in the case of acquiring a sexual infection, and the requirement not to have intercourse or to masturbate for a period of usually 2—3 days before making a donation.
Sperm provided by a sperm bank will be produced by a donor attending at the sperm bank's premises in order to ascertain the donor's identity on every occasion. The donor masturbates to provide an ejaculate or by the use of an electrical stimulator, although a special condomknown as a collection condommay be used to collect Hard seed in sperm semen during sexual intercourse.
The ejaculate is collected in a small container, which is usually extended with chemicals in order to provide a number of vials, each of which would be used for separate inseminations. The sperm is frozen and quarantined, usually for a period of six months, and the donor is re-tested prior to the sperm being used for artificial insemination.
Semen, also known as seminal...
In some jurisdictions, sperm may be donated through an agency. The agency Hard seed in sperm recruit donors, usually via the Internet. Donors may undergo the same kind of checks and tests required by a sperm bank, although clinics and agencies are not necessarily subject to the same regulatory regimes.
In the case of an agency, the sperm will be supplied to the recipient female fresh rather than frozen. A female chooses a donor and notifies the agency when she requires donations. The agency Hard seed in sperm the donor who must supply his sperm on the appropriate days nominated by the recipient.
The agency will usually provide the sperm donor with a male collection kit usually including a collection condom and a container for shipping the sperm.
This is collected and delivered by courier and the female uses the donor's sperm to inseminate herself, typically without medical supervision. This process preserves anonymity and enables a donor to produce sperm in the privacy of his own home.
A donor will generally produce samples once or twice during a recipient's fertile period, but a second sample each Hard seed in sperm may not have the same fecundity of the first sample because it is produced too soon after the first one. Pregnancy rates by this method vary more than Hard seed in sperm achieved by sperm banks or fertility clinics. Transit times may vary and these have a significant effect on sperm viability so that if a donor is not located near to a recipient female the sperm may deteriorate.
However, the use of fresh, as opposed to frozen, semen will mean that a sample has a greater fecundity and can produce higher pregnancy rates. Sperm agencies may impose limits on the number of pregnancies achieved from each donor, but in practice this is more difficult to achieve than for sperm banks where the whole process may be more regulated.
Most sperm donors only donate for a limited period, however, and since sperm supplied by a sperm agency is not processed into a number of different vials, there is a practical limit on the number of pregnancies which are usually produced in this way.
A sperm agency will, for the same reason, be less likely than a sperm bank to enable a female to have subsequent children by the same donor. Sperm agencies are largely unregulated Hard seed in sperm, because the sperm is not quarantined, may carry sexually transmitted diseases.
This lack of regulation has led to authorities in some jurisdictions bringing legal action against sperm agencies. Agencies typically insist on STI testing for donors, but such tests cannot detect recent infections.
Donors providing sperm in this way may not be protected by laws which apply to donations Hard seed in sperm a sperm bank or fertility clinic and will, if traced, be regarded as the legal father of each child produced. Couples or individuals who need insemination by a third-party may seek assistance privately and directly from a friend or family member, or may obtain a "private" or "directed" donation by advertising or through a broker.
A number of web sites seek to link recipients with sperm donors, while advertisements in gay and lesbian publications are common.
Recipients may already know the donor, or if arranged through a broker, the donor may meet the recipients and become known to them. Some brokers facilitate contact that maintains semi-anonymous identities for legal reasons.
Needing to produce a semen...
Where a private or directed donation is used, sperm need not be frozen. Private donations may be free of charge - avoiding the significant costs of a more medicalised insemination - and fresh rather than frozen semen is generally deemed to increase the chances of pregnancy. However, they also carry higher risks associated with unscreened sexual or body fluid contact.
Legal treatment of donors varies across jurisdictions, and in most jurisdictions e. However, the laws of some countries e.
Sperm vitality following exposure to...
New Zealand recognize written agreements between donors and recipients in a similar way to donations through a sperm bank. Kits are available, usually on-line, for artificial insemination for private donor use, and these kits generally include a collection pot, a syringe, ovulation tests and pregnancy tests.
A vaginal speculum and a soft cup may also be used. STI testing kits are also available but these only produce a 'snap-shot' result and, since sperm will not be frozen and quarantined, there will be risks associated with it.
Insemination through sexual intercourse is Hard seed in sperm as natural insemination NI. Where natural insemination is carried out by a person who is not the woman's usual sexual partner, and in circumstances where the express intention is to secure a pregnancy, this may be referred to as 'sperm donation by natural insemination'.
Natural insemination has not been recognised in any state as other than a natural procreation process whereby the sperm donor and biological father is liable for care and support of the child. A woman who becomes pregnant through natural insemination will therefore always have a legal right to claim child support from the donor and the donor has a legal right to the custody of the child. Conceiving through natural insemination is considered a natural process, so the biological father will always be liable for child support and custody rights of the child.
Natural insemination donors will therefore often donate without revealing their identity. Despite this, some private sperm donors offer both natural and artificial insemination, or they may offer natural insemination after attempts to achieve conception by artificial insemination have failed. Some women also seek natural insemination for various reasons including the desire by them for a "natural" conception.
Natural insemination by a donor usually avoids the Hard seed in sperm for costly medical procedures that may require the intervention of third parties. It may lack some of the safety precautions and screenings usually built into the artificial insemination process  but proponents claim that it produces higher pregnancy rates. However, it has not been medically proved that natural insemination has an increased chance of pregnancy.
NI is generally only carried out at the female's fertile time, as with other methods of insemination, in order to achieve the best chances of a pregnancy. A variation of NI is PI, or partial intercourse, where penetration by the donor takes place immediately before ejaculation, thus avoiding prolonged physical contact between the parties. A sperm Hard seed in sperm is usually advised not to ejaculate for two to three days before providing the sample, to increase sperm count.
A sperm donor produces and collects sperm at a sperm bank or clinic by masturbation or during sexual intercourse with the use of a collection condom. Sperm banks and clinics may "wash" Hard seed in sperm sperm sample to extract sperm from the rest of the material in the semen.
It may be washed after thawing for use in IUI procedures. A cryoprotectant semen extender is added if the sperm is to be placed in frozen storage Hard seed in sperm liquid nitrogenand the sample is then frozen in a number of vials or straws.
Following analysis of an individual donor's sperm, straws or vials may be prepared which contain differing amounts of motile sperm post-thaw. The number of sperm in a straw prepared for IVF use, for example, will be significantly less than the number of motile sperm in a straw prepared for ICI or IUI and there will therefore be more IVF straws per ejaculate.
Hard seed in sperm the necessary quarantine period, the samples are thawed and used to Hard seed in sperm women through artificial insemination or other ART treatments. Sperm banks typically screen potential donors for genetic diseaseschromosomal abnormalities and sexually transmitted infections that may be transmitted through sperm. The screening procedure generally also includes a quarantine period, in which the samples are frozen and stored for at least six months after which the donor will be re-tested for sexually transmitted diseases STIs.
This is to ensure no new infections have been acquired or have developed during the period of donation. Sperm donation is the provision (or "donation") by a man of his sperm (known as donor sperm). each donor, but in practice this is more difficult to achieve than for sperm banks where the whole process may be more regulated. These concerns led to the SEED Report commissioned by the HFEA, which was in turn. Whenever a big study into sperm health is produced and written about, abstaining from sex and retaining your seed in order to increase the.
Needing to produce a semen sample, for either semen analysis or fertility treatment use, may lead to "performance anxiety" or the inability to.
MORE: Fertility sperm life MORE: Colds sperm and 90 days
MORE: How to get a hard girl